Medicinal Chemistry Reviews

Volume 50, Chapter 6
Efficacious Anti-inflammatory and Respiratory Drugs:  Development from 1965 to 2014
Peter R. Bernstein and Stefan A. Laufer

1.    Introduction                                                                                                                138

2.   Arachidonic Acid                                                                                                         139

      2.1        Inflammation and the Prostaglandin (COX) Pathway                                    139

      2.2       Pulmonary and Inflammatory Aspects of Lipoxygenase Pathway            141

      2.3       Other Targets in the AA-cascade                                                                    143

3.   Glucocorticoids                                                                                                            143

      3.1        Mode of Action                                                                                               143

      3.2       History of Glucocorticoids                                                                              143

      3.3       Local Administration                                                                                      145

      3.4       Inhaled Corticosteroids                                                                                  145

4.   Kinases/Phosphodiesterases/Sphingosine Modulators                                          147

      4.1        JAK Inhibitors                                                                                                  150

      4.2       PI3K Inhibitors                                                                                                153

      4.3       PDE4 Inhibitors                                                                                               154

      4.4       S1P Modulators                                                                                               157

5.   Non-AA Related GPCRs                                                                                               157

      5.1        β2-agonists                                                                                    157                              5.2       Anti-Cholinergics                   161

      5.3       Combination Agents                                                                                      162

6.   Mast Cell Stabilizers for Asthma                                                                                164

7.   Conclusions                                                                                                                 165

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