Medicinal Chemistry Reviews

Volume 50, Chapter 7
PDE4 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Immune-mediated and Inflammatory Diseases
Katerina Leftheris, Yoshitaka Satoh, Peter H. Schafer, and Hon-Wah Man

1.    Introduction                                                                                                                171

2.   PDE4 Biology                                                                                                               172

      2.1        Molecular Biology                                                                                           172

      2.2       Hematopoietic Immune Cells                                                                        173

      2.3       Epithelial Cells                                                                                                 174

      2.4       Adipocytes                                                                                                       175

3.   Inhibitors of PDE4                                                                                                      176

      3.1        Roflumilast                                                                                                      176

      3.2       Apremilast                                                                                                       177

      3.3       Ibudilast                                                                                                           178

      3.4       Tetomilast                                                                                                        179

      3.5       Other PDE4 inhibitors in the Clinic                                                               179

      3.6       PDE4 Inhibitors for CNS Indications                                                             180

4.   Conclusions                                                                                                                 182

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